Orthognathic or corrective jaw surgery is performed by specially trained orthodontists in conjunction with oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Severe skeletal malocclusions caused by mismatches in jaw size and position may cause serious problems. Frequently, malocclusion can adversely affect speech function and often it can be accompanied by temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain.
Orthognathic surgical procedures are performed to improve a patient’s appearance in addition to correcting a wide range of functional problems, which, in turn, can improve chewing, speaking and breathing.
Corrective jaw surgery may reposition all or part of the upper jaw, lower jaw and chin. There are several surgical techniques that have been developed to allow the orthodontist, in conjunction with an oral surgical team, to reposition the upper or lower jaw. The treatment begins with placement of orthodontic appliances to begin tooth movement. The surgical procedure is then performed to realign the relationship of the upper and lower jaw. Once the bone is in the correct position, the orthodontist can properly finish aligning the teeth. This type of surgery is typically done once skeletal growth is complete.
Some of the surgical classifications include:
LeFort I Maxillary osteotomy: Moving the upper jaw in any position.
Sagittal Split Mandibular osteotomy : Used to move the lower jaw forward or backward
Vertical Ramus Mandibular osteotomy: Used to move the lower jaw backward.
Anterior Mandibular horizontal osteotomy: used to adjust the chin to stay in alignment with the patient’s profile.